Carbon credits are traded on voluntary and compliance markets mostly to States,
industries and corporate buyers.

Compliance market
Corporations or sovereign States fulfilling part of their CO 2
reduction obligations and avoiding financial penalties in case of
missing emissions targets. The international carbon credit
compliance market has been flooded with Chinese, Indian and
Brazilian credits on the supply side and a weak demand from
Europe, the main source of demand. Since COP21, the market is
being completely reshaped with new source of demand from
emerging countries, airline industry and States. The current
price is still at low level since last 3 years: 0.5 USD/tonne.

Voluntary market
Corporations, international institutions or individuals willing to
take a voluntary action to offset their CO 2 emissions. This
market is well fitted for Africa as buyers look for community-
based projects and / or activities with strong co-benefits and
social impacts. However, products are not fungible as demand
is oriented on a project basis and the liquidity is thin. The
market price is around 3 USD/tonne for qualitative projects.

Transaction types
• Forward sales with payment on delivery (contract
signed at development stage).
• Spot sales (once credits are issued).
• Fixed price and floating price, hybrid pricing schemes.
• Over-The-Counter (OTC) Vs spot market trades.
• Delivery guarantees and options schemes.

Market Data 2017

65 national and
jurisdictions are putting
a price on carbon.

60 billion USD of total
value of CO 2 trading
schemes and carbon

190 million USD
transacted on
voluntary markets.

63 Mt CO 2 traded on
voluntary markets.